Major classes of molecular players both from plants and their associated organisms have been revealed. These include cell surface and intracellular immune receptors of plants as well as apoplastic and host-cell-translocated cytoplasmic effectors of the invading organism. This article focuses on effectors, molecules secreted by plant-associated organisms that alter plant processes. Effectors have emerged as a central class of molecules in our integrated view of plant—microbe interactions. Their study has significantly contributed to advancing our knowledge of plant hormones, plant development, plant receptors, and epigenetics.
Many pathogen effectors are extraordinary examples of biological innovation; they include some of the most remarkable proteins known to function inside plant cells. Here, we review some of the key concepts that have emerged from the study of the effectors of plant-associated organisms. In particular, we focus on how effectors function in plant tissues and discuss future perspectives in the field of effector biology.
Against friend and foe: Type 6 effectors in plant-associated bacteria | SpringerLink
Chaparro-Garcia 1 , K. Belhaj 1 , D. Saunders 1 , K. Yoshida 1 , S. Dong 1 , S. Schornack 1 , C.
Comparative genomics of plant pathogenic Botrytis species with distinct host specificity. Biotechnological potential of engineering pathogen effector proteins for use in plant disease management. Gene deletion of Corynespora cassiicola cassiicolin Cas1 suppresses virulence in the rubber tree.
Plant immunity in signal integration between biotic and abiotic stress responses. The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene CcPmk1 is required for fungal growth, cell wall integrity and pathogenicity in Cytospora chrysosperma. Rust pathogen effectors: perspectives in resistance breeding. From genomes to forest management — tackling invasive Phytophthora species in the era of genomics.
Stacking three late blight resistance genes from wild species directly into African highland potato varieties confers complete field resistance to local blight races.
QTL mapping of mycelial growth and aggressiveness to distinct hosts in Ceratocystis pathogens. A LysM effector protein from the basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani contributes to virulence through suppression of chitin-triggered immunity. William E. Fry, Sean P. Patev, Kevin L. Myers, Kan Bao, and Zhangjun Fei. Genome sequencing and transcript analysis of Hemileia vastatrix reveal expression dynamics of candidate effectors dependent on host compatibility. Jennifer Lorang. Capsicum-Colletotrichum interaction: Identification of resistance sources and quantification of secondary metabolites in unripe and ripe fruits in response to anthracnose infection.
Repeat-containing protein effectors of plant-associated organisms
Arms race: diverse effector proteins with conserved motifs. Protocol adjustment improves the extraction of high-quality total RNA from common bean stems infected by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Identification of Plasmodiophora brassicae effectors — A challenging goal. Bioinformatic prediction of plant—pathogenicity effector proteins of fungi. Characterisation of pathogen-specific regions and novel effector candidates in Fusarium oxysporum f.
A myosin5 dsRNA that reduces the fungicide resistance and pathogenicity of Fusarium asiaticum. Improved prediction of fungal effector proteins from secretomes with EffectorP 2.
Application of molecular and biotechnological techniques in plant disease management: A review. Disease Resistance Mechanisms in Plants. Comprehensive analysis of Verticillium nonalfalfae in silico secretome uncovers putative effector proteins expressed during hop invasion. A review of wheat diseases-a field perspective. Evaluating the importance of the tan spot ToxA- Tsn1 interaction in Australian wheat varieties.
Novel sources of resistance to Septoria nodorum blotch in the Vavilov wheat collection identified by genome-wide association studies.
Molecular breeding technologies and strategies for rust resistance in wheat Triticum aestivum for sustained food security. Progress in understanding Pseudocercospora banana pathogens and the development of resistant Musa germplasm. Boxwood blight: an ongoing threat to ornamental and native boxwood. Spot blotch disease of wheat: the current status of research on genetics and breeding.
Devdutta Deb, Ryan G. Tyler, and John M. Soil mixture composition alters Arabidopsis susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae infection. Carl H. Deng, Ate van der Burgt, Henriek G. Beenen, Matthew D. Templeton, Rosie E.
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Bradshaw, and Pierre J. Ronaldo J. Dalio, John Herlihy, Tiago S. Oliveira, John M. McDowell, and Marcos Machado. Fungal and Bacterial Biotrophy and Necrotrophy. Navigating complexity to breed disease-resistant crops. A comparative genomic analysis of putative pathogenicity genes in the host-specific sibling species Colletotrichum graminicola and Colletotrichum sublineola.
Divergent and convergent modes of interaction between wheat and Puccinia graminis f. Effector-mediated discovery of a novel resistance gene against Bremia lactucae in a nonhost lettuce species.
INTERFERENCE OF TYPE III EFFECTORS WITH BASAL PLANT DEFENSE RESPONSES
Best Practices for Population Genetic Analyses. Everhart, B. Knaus, and Z. Meixiang Zhang and Gitta Coaker. Transfer and engineering of immune receptors to improve recognition capacities in crops. Immunity and starvation: new opportunities to elevate disease resistance in crops. Objective Traits. Genetic diversity of disease resistance genes in foxtail millet Setaria italica L. Genome sequence of Plasmopara viticola and insight into the pathogenic mechanism.
Plant responses to pathogen attack: molecular basis of qualitative resistance. A fungal wheat pathogen evolved host specialization by extensive chromosomal rearrangements.
Regulation of proteinaceous effector expression in phytopathogenic fungi. Have we finally opened the door to understanding Septoria tritici blotch disease in wheat?
Effector gene expression—Being in the right place at the right time
Putative orthologs of Ustilago maydis effectors screened from the genome of sugarcane smut fungus - Sporisorium scitamineum. Plant—pathogen interactions: toward development of next-generation disease-resistant plants. Editorial: Biotrophic Plant-Microbe Interactions.